BITL MCU

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Shortcuts: Calendar | Assignments | Resources | Today (if there is a class) Course: Introduction to Processors



Calendar

Date Topic, content Deliverables

03.09.21

11:10

Introduction

Microprocessors and microcontrollers. Applications. Architectures. Coourse outline.

14.09.21

11:10

Hexadecimal arithmetic

Representation of non-negative numbers in hardware, registers and memory. Decimal, binary, octal, and hexadecimal systems. Converting between the systems.

17.09.21

11:10

Lab :: Quiz 1

Lab

Practicing the conversion between the counting systems

Quiz 1

Decimal, binary, octal and hexadecimal systems.

  • Assignment Lab_Binary - Lab

21.09.21

11:10

Two's complement

Representing negative numbers in hardware. Register size, and why it is important. Methods for encoding negative numbers: packed, signed, bias, one's complement and two's complement. Converting between the value and two's complement in binary and hexadecimal systems.

24.09.21

11:10

Lab :: Quiz 2

Lab

Exercises with the two's complement

Quiz 2

Two's complement.

  • Assignment Lab_Complement - Lab

28.09.21

11:10

Processor architecture

Architecture of a processor. Registers, register file, ALU, datapath. CISC vs. RISC architectures. x86 architecture as CISC representative. ARM architecture as RISC. Instruction encoding.

01.10.21

11:10

Lab

Developing and testing a simple Assembly program. Using cross-compilation tools. Introduction to the Make system.

  • Assignment Lab_Make - Lab

05.10.21

11:10

Computing environment

Environment and tools for compiling and debugging Assembly programs. Compiler, preprocessor, assembly, linker, loader, debugger. Cross-compilation and toolchains. Emulators and virtual machines.

08.10.21

11:10

Lab

Advanced features of the Make system.

  • Assignment Lab_Make_2 - Lab

12.10.21

11:10

ARM Assembly and arithmetic

Introduction to ARM Assembly language and programming. Instruction types. Arithmetic instructions. MOV, ADD, SUB. MVN, ADC, SBC, RSB, RSC. Barrel Shifter.

15.10.21

11:10

Lab

Evaluating and following the code "on paper".

  • Assignment Lab_Dry_Run - Lab

19.10.21

11:10

Flow control and tests

Flow control in Assembly. Branch instructions. B, BL, BX, BLX. Working directly with PC register. CPSR flags. Condition field. Bit operations. AND, ORR, EOR, BIC, shift and rotation. CMP, CMN, TST, TEQ. Fast flags and the S postfix.

22.10.21

11:10

Lab :: Quiz 3

Lab

Debugging Assembly programs. Gnu debugger gdb.

Quiz 3

Code comprehension.

  • Assignment Lab_Debug - Lab
  • Due HW1 - Arithmetic progression

26.10.21

11:10

Memory instructions

Reading and writing data to memory. Memory access instructions. STR, LDR, STRB, STRH, LDRB, LDRH, LDRSB, LDRSH. Addressing modes: offset, pre-indexed and post-indexed. Using barrel shifter with addressing. Data alignment in memory.

29.10.21

11:10

Lab

TBD

  • Assignment Lab_TBD - Lab

02.11.21

11:10

Calling subroutines and interfacing with C

Variable types in C: static, automatic and dynamic. Calling subroutines and parameter passing conventions. Parameters and return value. Stack and registers. Saving the registers, the context. Loading and storing multiple registers: LDM, STM. Interfacing between Assembly and C.

05.11.21

11:10

Lab

TBD

  • Assignment Lab_TBD - Lab
  • Due HW2 - Matrix multiplication

09.11.21

11:10

Symbols

Symbol encoding in hardware and software. Code tables. ASCII. EBCDIC. ISO code tables. Foreign letter symbols. UTF-8, UTF-16. Strings in C and memory. Converting values to symbols and strings.

12.11.21

11:10

Midterm

Data representation in memory. Assembly code comprehension. Two programming tasks.

  • Assignment Proj - Project

16.11.21

11:10

Expressions and Macro commands

Expressions in Assembly. Operators in expressions. Constants. Assigning values to symbols. Directives: .set, .equiv, .eqv. Conditional compilation. Directives .if, .ifdef, .endif., ifb, .ifc, .ifeqs. More conditionals .ifeq, .ifge, .ifne and others. Macro commands: .macro, .endm., .rept. Recursive macros. Local macros. Macros across sections.

  • Due M1P1 - Midterm 1 programming task 1, tested
  • Due M1P2 - Midterm 1 programming task 2, tested

23.11.21

11:10

Lab

TBD

  • Assignment Lab_TBD - Lab

26.11.21

11:10

Inline Assembly

Including Assembly in C code. Inline code and Assembly code operands. Tasks for the compiler, linker and loader. Dynamic loaders and libraries.

30.11.21

11:10

Optimizations

Execution time for instructions. Case study for code optimization. Leveraging the documentation and specification of instructions. Reordering the code. Unrolling loops. Taking advantage of branch prediction. Cache memory and the code performance.

03.12.21

11:10

Lab

Review of the course topics

  • Assignment Lab_Summary - Lab
  • Due By midnight Proj - Project

13-22.12.2021

Exam week

Time for exams

16.12.21

11:10

Exam

Data representation in memory. Assembly code comprehension. Multiple choice questions and a programming task.

  • Due ExamP1 - Exam programming task, tested

Assignments

  • Homework HW1 is available from e-Studijas

Resources

ARM