Tēma: Kiber-fizikālās sistēmas (Cyber-Physical Systems - CPS)
When Bigger Is Not Better: Small, Low-Pin-Count Processors That Can Handle the Job:
Abstract - With the ever-continuing push for higher functional integration, complex MCU packages with hundreds of pins are now commonplace. Chipmakers are taking advantage of the high-pin-count parts to fit everything possible either on chip or around the periphery.
But not every microcontroller design needs a lot of I/O. Internal peripherals and resources can still perform rather complex functions and need only a pin or two such as UART, I²C, PWM, or SPI. What’s more, some designs are better suited to small size, low-pin-count parts in small packages that can fit in very tight spaces. These parts may also be inexpensive enough to essentially be “throw away”. In addition, the low power capability of these processors is, as they say in personnel recruitment ads, “a plus.” The difference maker in many cases is that the small, low-pin-count MCU is able to perform functions that otherwise would take several discrete chips and circuit elements to perform.
This article looks at some very small sized microcontrollers (16 pins or less) and the ranges of features and performances at the engineer’s disposal for size-constrained, tight-fitting applications. We will examine some of the available architectures for 8-, 16-, and 32-bit parts, as well as some advanced peripherals and review the capabilities of these processors, which include mixed-signal functionality.
Shields are your friend, except when...:
Abstract - Engineers just love to put shields on circuits, mostly as a defensive measure against signals on the outside getting into and disturbing our circuits, but they also keep signals inside from getting out and this really makes the folks responsible for EMI compliance happy.
Even on low-frequency circuits, shielding can take care of drift due to air currents and AC power mains pickup. At higher frequencies shielding can take care of emissions and pickup. In RF or microwave circuits shielding makes possible radio receivers, spectrum analyzers and all sorts of equipment that simply would not function without sufficient shielding and the isolation that it provides between the various RF and IF sections.
Cyber-Physical Systems: Integrated Computing and Engineering Design:
Abstract - Many things need to be done to realize the benefits of cyber-physical systems. With these goals for CPS improvement, the book discusses the many challenges that must first be overcome, and provides a roadmap on how to do it. Accounting for random events that can occur in a real environment can be troublesome for a system when trying to ensure safety, security, and predictability.
Verification of Cyber Physical Systems:
Abstract - Due to the increasing complexity of today’s cyber-physical systems, defects become inevitable and harder to detect. The complexity of such software is generally huge, with millions of lines of code. The impact of failure of such systems could be hazardous. The reliability of the system depends on the effectiveness and rigor of the testing procedures. Verification of the software behind such cyber-physical systems is required to ensure stability and reliability before the systems are deployed in field. We have investigated the verification of the software for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) to ensure safety of the system at any given time in the field. To accomplish this, we identified useful invariants that would aid as monitors in detecting abnormal behavior of the software. Potential invariants were extracted which had to be validated. The investigation attempts to uncover the possibility of performing this method on existing Software verification platforms. This was accomplished on Cloud9, which is built on KLEE and using the Microsoft’s VCC tool. Experimental results show that this method of extracting invariants can help in identifying new invariants using these two tools and the invariants identified can be used to monitor the behavior of the autonomous vehicles to detect abnormality and failures in the system much earlier thereby improving the reliability of the system. Recommendations for improving software quality were provided. The work also explored safety measures and standards on software for safety critical systems and Autonomous vehicles. Metrics for measuring software complexity and quality along with the requirements to certify AUV software were also presented. The study helps in understanding verification issues, guidelines and certification requirements.
Extending automation of building construction — Survey on potential sensor technologies and robotic applications:
Abstract - Today, many construction operations have incorporated automated equipment, means, and methods into their regular practises. Although adaption of automation in the building construction sector has been slow, principles of industrial automation are applicable to this domain, both to building construction, civil engineering, and to prefabrication of construction components. Improved sensor technologies and the widening use of the Building Information Modeling (BIM) will offer new possibilities to cover various needs and operations taking place throughout the building life cycle. These can play a key role in future construction automation. This paper provides a survey for potential sensor technologies for building construction automation, highlighting their potential also with contributions from robotics. The paper carries out the survey from the viewpoints of building construction phases.