Tēma: Inteliģentās (viedās) transporta sistēmas
In-vehicle communication networks - a historical perspective and review:
Abstract - The use of networks for communications between the Electronic Control Units (ECU) of a vehicle in production cars dates from the beginning of the 90s. The specific requirements of the different car domains have led to the development of a large number of automotive networks such as LIN, CAN, CAN FD, FlexRay, MOST, automotive Ethernet AVB, etc.. This report first introduces the context of in-vehicle embedded systems and, in particular, the requirements imposed on the communication systems. Then, a review of the most widely used, as well as the emerging automotive networks is given. Next, the current efforts of the automotive industry on middleware technologies which may be of great help in mastering the heterogeneity, are reviewed, with a special focus on the proposals of the AUTOSAR consortium. Finally, we highlight future trends in the development of automotive communication systems.
Next Generation Wired Intra-Vehicle Networks, A Review:
Abstract — Automotive electronics is a rapidly expanding area with an increasing number of driver assistance and infotainment devices becoming standard in new vehicles. A review of current networking standards within vehicles reveals a fragmented and proprietary situation with several standards such as MOST, CAN and LVDS dominating, all of which are currently being used by various vehicle manufacturers. Due to the cost of employing a range of networking standards, there is a general desire within the automotive industry to converge on the use of the 802.3 Ethernet for all in-vehicle communication between devices. The introduction of in-vehicle cameras to provide driver assistance applications and the associated high bandwidth requirements of multi camera sys- tems has accelerated the demand for a unifying automotive network architecture. This paper presents an overview of current research present in the literature and identifies trends in the field for the future.
Technology Survey of Wireless Communication for In-vehicle Applications:
Abstract - Currently, wireless communication technologies are expected to be widely employed for in-vehicle communication where in-vehicle communication is built upon the interactions of different parts inside the vehicle. This communication is to enable a variety of applications for driver and passenger needs. To have improved driving assistance, development of in-vehicle applications is very much needed. At present, intelligent systems inside the vehicle are mostly dominated by the wired technologies. The possibilities of wireless communication have inspired us and made an opportunity to analyse replacements for wired communication within a vehicle. In this connection, the scope of our thesis is to define the in-vehicle applications which are preferred by the wireless technologies, to define the applications using wired technologies which could be replaced by the wireless technologies and to identify those applications which are difficult to implement by the wireless technologies. In-vehicle wired networks; and problems of these wired networks, along with several existing applications, have been discussed at the initial stage of this thesis for the purpose of having a clear understanding. After that, existing In-vehicle wireless applications and several challenging applications have also been studied. Studies have been done on the most important wireless technologies with their respective specifications. The requirement of establishing wireless communication has also been explained. Finally, an analysis has been done according to the requirements of the applications and verification of their possible reliance on the wireless technologies. In a brief, comparable studies have been done among the wireless technologies to assess their current and future fitness for In-vehicle applications. The thesis concludes with some recommendations regarding when wireless technologies might be suitable for some in-vehicle applications to replace the wired technologies.
Low-Frequency RFIC Solutions for Tire-Pressure-Monitoring Systems:
Abstract — A tire-pressure-monitoring system (TPMS) provides early warning of abnormal tire pressure or failure. Used separately or in conjunction with other vehicle electronic systems, a TPMS serves an essential role for passenger safety, vehicle handling, and tire lifetime. At the heart of most TPMS designs, RF devices serve a fundamental function in communicating tire pressure data used by vehicle safety systems to alert drivers. For building integrated, standalone, and add-on TPMS devices, engineers can take advantage of available devices from manufacturers including Atmel, Maxim Integrated Products, Silicon Laboratories, and Texas Instruments, among others.
TPMS systems function directly by monitoring tire pressure or indirectly by using the vehicle's anti-lock system to detect changes in rotational speed associated with the decreased radius of a deflated tire. Direct methods (the subject of this article) rely on low-frequency RF devices to transmit tire pressure measurements to vehicle safety management systems.
A Survey on Intelligent Transportation Systems:
Abstract — Transportation or transport sector is a legal source to take or carry things from one place to another. With the passage of time, transportation faces many issues like high accidents rate, traffic congestion, traffic & carbon emissions air pollution, etc. In some cases, transportation sector faced alleviating the brutality of crash related injuries in accident. Due to such complexity, researchers integrate virtual technologies with transportation which known as Intelligent Transport System. The idea of virtual technologies integration is a novel in transportation field and it plays a vital part to overcome the issues in global world. This paper tackles the great variety of Intelligent Transport System applications, technologies and its different areas. The objective of this literature review is to integrate and synthesize some areas and applications, technologies discuss with all prospects. Furthermore, this research focuses on a wide field named Intelligent Transport Systems, discussed its wide applications, used technologies and its usage in different areas respectively.
Securely connecting Electric Vehicles to the Smart Grid:
Abstract — Rechargeable electric vehicles are receiving increasing attention from different stakeholders: from customers as gas prices are constantly rising, from car manufacturers to address customer, market, and environmental demands, and also from electric energy utilities for integrating them into smart electric grids. While in the first step, the emphasis is placed on electric vehicles as energy consumers, using their battery for storing energy and feeding it back to the energy network will be the consequent next step. Batteries of electric vehicles will realize a distributed energy electric storage for stabilizing the electric power grid. Thus the electric vehicle will participate as a mobile energy node within the smart grid having two types of interfaces, one for electricity and one for data communication for charging and feedback control, information exchange, and for billing. Since IT security in the smart grid is already considered as a major point to be addressed, the enhancement of the smart grid with electric mobility has to address IT security as well. This article describes example interactions of electric vehicles with the charging infrastructure and it shows which security requirements have to be fulfilled in important use cases. Moreover, security considerations of current standardization activities ISO/IEC and SAE are described.
Smart Navigation in Intelligent Transportation Systems: Service Performance and impact on Wireless Networks:
Abstract — Wireless communications are nowadays considered as enablers of innovation in the field of smart mobility in smart cities. In this work, we focus on the smart navigation service, which is aimed at providing drivers with the best route to destination taking into account real time traffic conditions. Smart navigation is increasingly used today and expected to reduce traffic congestions, but the real impact on travel time and the cost in terms of wireless network resources are still open issues. These aspects are here discussed starting from the objectives and the outputs of the Italian project PEGASUS. More specifically, to what extent this application can reduce the travel duration and how frequently traffic information must be updated will be firstly discussed; then, the impact on wireless networks of both the uplink collection of traffic information and the downlink transmission to vehicles is shown, focusing on the UMTS cellular technology; finally, the use of short range IEEE 802.11p wireless communications technology is investigated to offload cellular networks. Through simulations performed in a dense urban scenario, it is shown that 30% to 50% travel time can be saved, that the needed information exchange might reduce the cellular network capacity available for other services of 20% or more, and that the deployment of few road side units and multi-hop transmissions can be effectively used to offload cellular networks.
COLOMBO: Investigating the Potential of V2X for Traffic Management Purposes assuming low penetration Rates:
Abstract — After the Vehicular Communication (V2X) technology roll out in 2015, the number of equipped vehicles is assumed to increase slowly. While many Day One V2X applications are related to traffic safety and require a high penetration rate and communication reliability, traffic management applications could still benefit from even few equipped vehicles. Considering local V2X-based traffic surveillance based on a low rate of V2X technology, traffic light control could dynamically adapt priorities depending on traffic flows and volumes. In order to mitigate the low rate of V2X technology, already deployed solutions for wireless ad-hoc communications, such as WiFi-direct, available on most smartphones (often on-board of regular vehicles), should be investigated and exploited as complementary source of information, with full awareness of their strong reliability and performance limitations. The COLOMBO project, which is co-funded by the European Commission and presented within this report, focuses on such use of information either from a small subset of V2X-equipped vehicles only, or complementary to other wireless ad-hoc technologies and tries to exploit this information for traffic surveillance and an adaptive, optimized control of traffic lights.
Cross-Network Information Dissemination in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs): Experimental Results from a Smartphone-Based Testbed:
Abstract — In this work, we present an innovative approach for effective cross-network information dissemination, with applications to vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). The proposed approach, denoted as "Cross-Network Effective Traffic Alert Dissemination" (X-NETAD), leverages on the spontaneous formation of local WiFi (IEEE 802.11b) VANETs, with direct connections between neighboring vehicles, in order to disseminate, very quickly and inexpensively, traffic alerts received from the cellular network. The proposed communication architecture has been implemented on Android smartphones. The obtained experimental results show that an effective cross-network information dissemination service can entirely rely on smartphone-based communications. This paves the way to future Internet architectures, where vehicles will play a key role as information destinations and sources.
A survey on vehicular cloud computing:
Abstract - Vehicular networking has become a significant research area due to its specific features and applications such as standardization, efficient traffic management, road safety and infotainment. Vehicles are expected to carry relatively more communication systems, on board computing facilities, storage and increased sensing power. Hence, several technologies have been deployed to maintain and promote Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Recently, a number of solutions were proposed to address the challenges and issues of vehicular networks. Vehicular Cloud Computing (VCC) is one of the solutions. VCC is a new hybrid technology that has a remarkable impact on traffic management and road safety by instantly using vehicular resources, such as computing, storage and internet for decision making. This paper presents the state-of-the-art survey of vehicular cloud computing. Moreover, we present a taxonomy for vehicular cloud in which special attention has been devoted to the extensive applications, cloud formations, key management, inter cloud communication systems, and broad aspects of privacy and security issues. Through an extensive review of the literature, we design an architecture for VCC, itemize the properties required in vehicular cloud that support this model. We compare this mechanism with normal Cloud Computing (CC) and discuss open research issues and future directions. By reviewing and analyzing literature, we found that VCC is a technologically feasible and economically viable technological shifting paradigm for converging intelligent vehicular networks towards autonomous traffic, vehicle control and perception systems.
Automotive Technology and Human Factors Research: Past, Present, and Future:
Abstract - This paper reviews the history of automotive technology development and human factors research, largely by decade, since the inception of the automobile. The human factors aspects were classified into primary driving task aspects (controls, displays, and visibility), driver workspace (seating and packaging, vibration, comfort, and climate), driver’s condition (fatigue and impairment), crash injury, advanced driver-assistance systems, external communication access, and driving behavior. For each era, the paper describes the SAE and ISO standards developed, the major organizations and conferences established, the major news stories affecting vehicle safety, and the general social context. The paper ends with a discussion of what can be learned from this historical review and the major issues to be addressed. A major contribution of this paper is more than 180 references that represent the foundation of automotive human factors, which should be considered core knowledge and should be familiar to those in the profession.